Who is the bright and morning star of Revelation 22:16?

Revelation 22:16  “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”

Daniel [Dani’el] 12:3And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Based on examining what looks to be all verses concerning “morning stars”, I believe that it is mainly a special designation for a “bright” person who “shines” and “sparkles like a star” turning others to righteousness, and also is used for certain angels/messengers/hosts. I also believe that King David is the “bright and morning star” referred to in Revelation 22:16, not JESUS/YESHUA. Please examine the Scriptures below and the comments with them.

JPS Tanakh 1917 Genesis [B’Resheet] 49:10
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff/lawgiver [H2710] from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.

[This verse is talking about the MESSIAH and others. SHILOH and the ONE whom obedience of the peoples refers to is the MESSIAH. The Sceptre was Judah’s as long as men come to Shiloh so this refers to the whole line of their kings until the event spoken of happened. Judah anointed David as one of their kings/rulers. From the Psalms we know David loved the law of GOD/ELOHIM and wanted his people to be righteous! Please see the verse below:]

English Standard Version II Samuel [Sh’mu’el Bet] 2:4
And the men of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah.   
[David also became king over Israel. Please see verse below:]

New American Standard II Samuel [Sh’mu’el Bet] 5:3 So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and King David made a covenant with them before the LORD at Hebron; then they anointed David king over Israel.

BELOW IS THE KEY VERSE:

ISR Numbers [B’midbar] 24:17 “I see Him, but not now; I observe Him, but not near. A Star [H3556] shall come out of Ya‛aqoḇ [Rev. 22:16/Matthew – Mattityahu – 1:2,6], and a Sceptre shall rise out of Yisra’ĕl [II Samuel – Sh’mu’el Bet – 5:3], and shall smite the corners of Mo’aḇ [II Samuel – Sh’mu’el Bet – 8:2], and shall destroy all the sons of Shĕth [H8352 Sheth/Seth: Adam and Eve’s third son and H8351 sheth: seat of the body from H7582 sha’ah: to lay waste, desolate, ruin]. [Continuation of this passage is below with more about whom “he”, who I believe is David, destroys. I do not believe the above verse is talking about JESUS/YESHUA. See below for the continuation of this prophecy.]

[Examining the verse above from the belief the bright and morning star of Revelation 22 is possibly David, we have David as the star out of Jacob. David was from Jacob’s line and according to H3556, he could be considered a star [see H3556 and what is written about righteousness in Daniel – Dani’el -12:3, both way below here]. We see from II Samuel – Sh’mu’el Bet – 5:3 that David was king over Israel. See verses below concerning David dealing with Moab and the descendants of Sheth. In Genesis 5 we see that Seth’s descendant was Noah and then Noah’s sons. In Genesis 6-8 we see that all mankind was destroyed on the face of the earth except for Noah and his family so all mankind living today came from Noah and were Seth’s descendants. David destroyed those that laid waste and caused desolation and ruin.]

ESV Matthew [Mattityahu] 1:2 Abraham was the father of Isaac, and Isaac the father of Jacob, and Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers, and Judah the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, and Perez the father of Hezron, and Hezron the father of Ram,[a] and Ram the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab the father of Nahshon, and Nahshon the father of Salmon, and Salmon the father of Boaz by Rahab, and Boaz the father of Obed by Ruth, and Obed the father of Jesse, and Jesse the father of David the king.

JPS Tanakh 1917 II Samuel [Sh’mu’el Bet] 8:2  
And he smote Moab, and measured them with the line, making them to lie down on the ground; and he measured two lines to put to death, and one full line to keep alive. And the Moabites became servants to David, and brought presents.

Continuation of prophecy of Numbers 24 from above:

ISR Numbers [B’midbar] 24:18 “And Eḏom shall be a possession; and Sĕ‛ir shall be a possession – enemies – and Yisra’ĕl is doing mightily. [see I Chronicles, Divrei-Hayamim Alef, 18:11-13 and I Kings, M’Lakhim Alef, 11:15-16 showing David destroying them. Genesis [B’Resheet] 25:30 and 36:1 shows Edom was Esau, Genesis [B’Resheet] 14:6, 32:3, 36:21 and Deuteronomy [D’varim] 2:12 show Seir is a mountain range in Edom and the original inhabitants were wiped out by Esau/descendants.]

19“And out of Ya‛aqoḇ One shall rule [out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion – kjv] [H7287 – râdâh, raw-daw’; a primitive root; to tread down, i.e. subjugate; specifically, to crumble off:—(come to, make to) have dominion, prevail against, reign, (bear, make to) rule,(-r, over), take.] and destroy the remnant from Ar.” [Numbers, B’midbar, 21:15 – Ar is a chief Moabite city and II Samuel, Sh’mu’el Bet, 8:2 concerns what David did to the Moabites.]

20He then looked on Amalĕq, and he took up his proverb and said, “Amalĕq was first among the nations, but his latter end is to perish forever.” [I Samuel, Sh’mu’el Alef, 27:8, I Samuel, Sh’mu’el Alef, 13:17-18, II Samuel, Sh’mu’el Bet, 1:1, and I Chronicles, Divrei-Hayamim Alef,  18:11 – David and the Amalekites. I Chronicles, Divrei-Hayamim Alef, 4:42-43 is when the Simeonites destroyed them. Genesis, B’Resheet, 36:12-16 has Amalek as being a descendant of Esau/Edom.]

22but Qayin is to be burned. Till when does Asshur keep you captive?” [Verse 24 may be the answer]

23And he took up his proverb and said, “Oh, who does live when Ěl does this?

24And ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, and they shall afflict Asshur and afflict Ěḇer, and so shall Amalĕq, and he also perishes.”  [Genesis, B’Resheet, 10:4 Son of Japheth was Javan and his son was Kittim – also Chittim [meaning “which see”].

From what I have examined so far, ISR and NKJ are the only two translations that mention Amalek in verse 24. Other translations do not have Amalek included in verse 24, instead they say, “and he also shall perish for ever” or similar words which makes it sound as if Kittim may be destroyed along with those they were afflicting.

We have to remember that there is no punctuation in Hebrew and I believe that [correct me if am wrong] they wrote the event that happened next to whom it was happening to, not way later, because there was no punctuation separating statements. The interesting thing is that verse 20 says that Amalek’s later end is to perish forever. With Amalek’s name included in verse 24 and with the rest of the verse saying, “and he also perishes”, then this could be the end verse 20 is speaking of.

Is there a historian out there that would look into these nations and see if dates of destruction prove the inclusion of Amalek in the end of verse 24 or not?

Now on to more verses with information about who the stars are.

JPS Tanakh 1917 Judges [Shof’tim]  5:20
They fought from heaven, The stars [H3556 – see below] in their courses fought against Sisera. [see Isaiah 40:26 below. I believe this verse speaks of the heavenly host who are commanded by YHWH ELOHIM Sabaoth [LORD GOD of hosts].

English Standard Version Job [Iyov] 38:

6On what were its bases sunk, or who laid its cornerstone,

7when the morning [H1242] stars [H3556] sang [H7442] together and all the sons of God shouted for joy? [So at the time of the cornerstone being laid the morning stars sang together. They were sons of GOD who sang, perhaps in the morning, and they with the other sons of GOD, shouted for joy. The ANCIENT of DAYS, ELOHIM’S WORD, and the HOLY SPIRIT were busy creating. Looking at the definitions below, I believe the verse above refers to either angels/messengers or host/army. Genesis, B’Resheet, 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host [H6635] of them.

Strong’s H6635 – tsaba’

  1. that which goes forth, army, war, warfare, host

    1. army, host

      1. host (of organised army)

      2. host (of angels)

      3. of sun, moon, and stars

      4. of whole creation

    2. war, warfare, service, go out to war

    3. service

Strong’s H7442 – rananrânan, raw-nan’; a primitive root; to overcome, to be overcome, properly, to creak (or emit a stridulous sound), i.e. to shout (usually for joy):—aloud for joy, cry out, be joyful (greatly, make to) rejoice, (cause to) shout (for joy), (cause to) sing (aloud, for joy, out), triumph.

Strong’s H1242 – boqer

  1. morning, break of day

    1. morning

      1. of end of night

      2. of coming of daylight

      3. of coming of sunrise

      4. of beginning of day

      5. of bright joy after night of distress (fig.)

    2. morrow, next day, next morning

H1242 from root Strong’s H1239 – baqar [and I believe this is the key to who a morning star human is to GOD/ELOHIM. We know David got up early seeking GOD/ELOHIM. See Psalm, Tehillim,  63:1-2. It may even be only human males who earn this designation because GOD’S Heavenly messengers/hosts/angels are never described as being a female in Scripture. In fact, Jacob had a least one daughter mentioned in Scripture and Joseph’s dream of 11 stars [Scripture quoted below] did not include her, only the male children. Below may apply to Heavenly beings as well as human.  I Peter, Kefa, 1:12 does talk about things that even angels long to look into!]

  1. to seek, enquire, consider

    1. (Piel)

      1. to seek, look for

      2. to consider, reflect

English Standard Version Psalm, Tehillim,  27:8
You have said, “Seek [H1245] my face.” My heart says to you, “Your face, LORD, do I seek. [H1245]”

[This is interesting. The word “seek” here is Strong’s H1245: bâqash, baw-kash’; a primitive root; to search out (by any method, specifically in worship or prayer); by implication, to strive after:—ask, beg, beseech, desire, enquire, get, make inquisition, procure, (make) request, require, seek (for). It looks to be similar to H1239 – the root of “morning” H1242. This could tie to verses such as: 

Psalm, Tehillim,  5:3   In the morning [H1242], LORD, you hear my voice; in the morning [H1242] I lay my requests before you and wait expectantly. See also Psalm [Tehillim] 88:13, Psalm, Tehillim, 130:6I wait for the Lord more than watchmen wait for the morning [H1242], more than watchmen wait for the morning [H1242].

Isaiah, Yesha’yahu, 50:4
The Sovereign LORD has given me a well-instructed tongue, to know the word that sustains the weary. He wakens me morning by morning [H1242], wakens my ear to listen like one being instructed.

Strong’s H3556 – kowkab

  1. star

    1. of Messiah, brothers, youth, numerous progeny, personification, God’s omniscience (fig.)

      [While a sun is a star, it is referenced as the sun because it is different then others stars. See information below on difference between a star and a sun. Another interesting note is Joseph’s dream from Genesis 37:Then he a dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?” In the dream the father, Jacob, was the sun and the sons of Jacob the stars.]

kôwkâb, ko-kawb’; probably from the same as H3522 (in the sense of rolling) [also hilly, heaping] or H3554 (in the sense of blazing, burn, be scorched); a star (as round or as shining); figuratively, a prince:—star(-gazer). Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon: ….to sparkle like a star....kâvâh, kaw-vaw’; a primitive root; properly, to prick or penetrate; hence, to blister (as smarting or eating into):—burn.

[I believe this is a key verse:]

Daniel, Dani’el, 12:3And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness [H2096 from root H2094] of the sky above;[a] and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars [H3556] forever and ever

Strong’s H2096 – zohar – brightness, shining

from Strong’s H2094 – zahar

  1. to admonish, warn, teach, shine, send out light, be light, be shining

    1. (Niphal) to be taught, be admonished

    2. (Hiphil)

      1. to teach, warn

      2. to shine, send out light (fig.)

What is the difference between a “star” and a “sun …

curious.astro.cornell.edu/…/starsstar…/346-what-is-the-difference-betw…
Jun 27, 2015 – A star is called a “sun” if it is the center of a planetary system. A large number of planets have been found that orbit other stars, thus making these stars officially “suns.” Chances are that a large percentage of the stars in the galaxy also have planets orbiting them, which would make them suns as well.

Hebrew word for “sun”, Strong’s H8121 – shemesh, sheh’-mesh; from an unused root meaning to be brilliant; the sun; by implication, the east [GOD’S Way is the east h6924  H6923 see also Strong’s G2246 below]; figuratively, a ray, i.e. (architectural) a notched battlement:— east side(-ward), sun (rising), west(-ward), window. See also H1053.

Greek word for “sun”, Strong’s G2246 – hḗlios, hay’-lee-os; from ἕλη hélē (a ray; perhaps akin to the alternate of G138); the sun; by implication, light:—+ east, sun.

JPS Tanakh 1917 Psalm, Tehillim, 148:3
Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars [H3556] of light [H216].

H3556 [see above] and Strong’s H216 – ‘owr

  1. light

    1. light of day

    2. light of heavenly luminaries (moon, sun, stars)

    3. day-break, dawn, morning light

    4. daylight

    5. lightning

    6. light of lamp

    7. light of life

    8. light of prosperity

    9. light of instruction

    10. light of face (fig.)

    11. Jehovah as Israel’s light

From root Strong’s H215 – ‘owr

ôwr, ore; a primitive root; to be (causative, make) luminous (literally and metaphorically):—× break of day, glorious, kindle, (be, en-, give, show) light (-en, -ened, of the eyes, his law, etc), set on fire, shine (of the face).

English Standard Version Isaiah, Yesha’yahu, 11:1  There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit. [This could be both David and the MESSIAH.]

JPS Tanakh 1917 Isaiah, Yesha’yahu, 40:26
Lift up your eyes on high, And see: who hath created these [some translations say “stars” here] [H3318]? He that bringeth out their host [H6635] by number, He calleth them all by name; By the greatness of His might, and for that He is strong in power, Not one faileth.  [see Judges 5:20]

New American Standard 1977 Isaiah, Yesha’yahu’ 40:26
Lift up your eyes on high
And see who has created these stars [H3318], [we see from the word below it is also different than the word behind other verses containing the word “star[s]” H3556]
            The One who leads forth their host [H6635] by number,
            He calls them all by name;
Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of His power
Not one of them is missing. [HE has not lost any of them in battle! Praise HIM!]

Strong’s H3318 – yatsa’

  1. to go out, come out, exit, go forth

    1. (Qal)

      1. to go or come out or forth, depart

      2. to go forth (to a place)

      3. to go forward, proceed to (to or toward something)

      4. to come or go forth (with purpose or for result)

      5. to come out of

    2. (Hiphil)

      1. to cause to go or come out, bring out, lead out

      2. to bring out of

      3. to lead out

      4. to deliver

    3. (Hophal) to be brought out or forth

Strong’s H6635 – tsaba’

  1. that which goes forth, army, war, warfare, host
    1. army, host
      1. host (of organised army)
      2. host (of angels)

      3. of sun, moon, and stars

      4. of whole creation

    2. war, warfare, service, go out to war

    3. service

Berean Literal Bible II Peter, Kefa, 1:19
And we have the more certain prophetic word, to which you do well taking heed, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until this day shall have dawned and the morning star [G5459] shall have arisen in your hearts, [Note this Greek word is different from the Hebrew verses use of “morning star” as the Greek is from one word, G5459, where in the Hebrew verses above it is made up of two words – H1242 and H3556. Note the differences in meaning comparing the Hebrew words and root words to the Greek word and root. I do not believe the words “morning star” should have been used for the above verse. In fact, when you look at Revelation 2:28 below, the words “morning star” are used and it is made up of two words – G4407 and G792 – and looks to be closer to the Hebrew meaning.]

Aramaic Bible in Plain English II Peter, Kefa, 1:19
And we have also the true word of prophecy, upon which you do well to gaze, as at a lamp that shines in a dark place, until the day will shine and the Sun will rise in your hearts,  [Note this translation and another Aramaic one say “Sun” instead of “morning/day star”.]

Strong’s G5459 – phōsphoros

  1. light bringing, giving light

  2. the planet Venus, the morning star, day star

  3. metaph. Christ

From root Strong’s G5457 – phōs

  1. light

    1. the light

      1. emitted by a lamp

      2. a heavenly light such as surrounds angels when they appear on earth

    2. anything emitting light

      1. a star

      2. fire because it is light and sheds light

      3. a lamp or torch

    3. light, i.e brightness

      1. of a lamp

  2. metaph.

    1. God is light because light has the extremely delicate, subtle, pure, brilliant quality

    2. of truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity associated with it

    3. that which is exposed to the view of all, openly, publicly

    4. reason, mind

      1. the power of understanding esp. moral and spiritual truth

Message to the Church in Thyatira Revelation 2: 26 ‘He who overcomes, and he who keeps My deeds until the end, TO HIM I WILL GIVE AUTHORITY OVER THE NATIONS; 27AND HE SHALL RULE THEM WITH A ROD OF IRON, AS THE VESSELS OF THE POTTER ARE BROKEN TO PIECES, as I also have received authority from My Father; 28and I will give him the morning [G4407] star [G792]. [It looks like “morning star” here is a type of designation CHRIST will give those who overcome and achieve what HE has stated.]

Strong’s G4407 – prōïnos  pertaining to the morning

From root Strong’s G4404 – prōï 

  1. in the morning, early

  2. the fourth watch of the night, from 3 o’clock in the morning until 6 o’clock approximately

From root Strong’s G4253 – pro:   before  [notice that “pro” does not mean “for” but “before”].

Strong’s G792 – astēr

  1. a star

From root Strong’s G4766 – strōnnyō

  1. to spread

  2. furnish

  3. to spread with couches or divans

From root Strong’s G4731 – stereos

  1. strong, firm, immovable, solid, hard, rigid

    1. in a bad sense, cruel, stiff, stubborn, hard

    2. in a good sense, firm, steadfast

English Standard Version Revelation 22: 16  “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright [G2986] morning [G3720] star [G792 – see above].” [This verse has a different word used for morning compared to the two verses from the Greek above: II Peter, Kefa, 1:19 and Revelation 2:28, and it also looks closer to the Hebrew meaning then II Peter, Kefa, 1:19. Some translations say, “of David, and the bright and morning star” and have also seen no comma next to David’s name as well. Remember, Hebrew has no punctuation and the words “bright and morning star” are right next to David’s name.

Strong’s G2986 – lampros

  1. shining

    1. brilliant

    2. clear, transparent

  2. splendid, magnificent

    1. splendid things i.e. luxuries or elegancies in dress or style

From root Strong’s G2985 – lampas

  1. a torch

  2. a lamp, the flame of which is fed with oil

Strong’s G3720 – orthrinos

  1. early

  1. daybreak, dawn

  2. at early dawn, at daybreak, early in the morning

From root Strong’s G3722 – orthros

  1. daybreak, dawn

  2. at early dawn, at daybreak, early in the morning

From root Strong’s G3735 – oros óros, or’-os; probably from an obsolete ὄρω órō (to rise or “rear”; perhaps akin to G142; compare G3733); a mountain (as lifting itself above the plain):—hill, mount(-ain).

Verses above are from various translations copied from Bible Hub and Bible Gateway. Strong’s and Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon definitions are copied from Blue Letter Bible. Information concerning Numbers 24 and the different nations and where they came from or were located, came from the Biblical Cyclopedic Index from “The Open Bible Edition” KJV, Thomas Nelson Publishers 1975.

 

 

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